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Code of conduct of the legal profession

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Code of conduct of the legal profession

(unofficial translation provided by our firm)

1. An Advocate, according to the Advocates’ Code, is required to be a member of the Bar Association in the district of which he is appointed to offer his Service. He is appointed under a presidential decree as an unsalaried public servant and he is “Collaborator Officer of Justice”. He is part of the Triptych of the operation and conferment of Justice (Judges – Advocates – Judicial officials).
2. All the Bar Associations of the State according to the article 199 of the Legislative Decree 3026/1954 “On the Advocates’ Code” are charged with the following duties and obligations, the fulfillment of which is a legal and moral duty:
Α) To protect the Advocate’s dignity in every way and to ensure that each Authority confers the due respect to the Advocate when offering his services.
Β) To submit proposals and opinions concerning the improvement of the Legislation, its interpretation and its implementation.
C) To formulate remarks and judgments on the operation and the conferment of Justice.
D) To discuss and take decisions on all matters concerning the Body of Advocates or the members of the Bar Association or the legal profession.
Ε) To discuss and decide on any National or Social issue.
The above provisions define the Advocates’ special nature and substance and provide them with special status and vocational authority, as the legal practitioners and the Greek People peer into their totality with particular interest.
3. The Bar Associations of the State are Scientific and Professional Organizations.
As Scientific Organizations that include the pioneering scientific forces of the State, they have the mission to offer their services for the proper operation and conferment of Justice and in order to promote and develop the science of Law, to improve the Legislation, to monitor the Case Law, to defend the Independence of Justice, to protect Civil Right and Liberties of the citizens, to ensure the freedom of speech of the Greek People.
As Professional Associations that include legal practitioners, who strive for their careers, for their survival and their prosperity, they have the duty to defend any issue and any professional and moral demand of the Body of the Advocates. In addition, they have the duty to strive for the promotion of the above and for their solution and to stay vigilant for the protection of the entire Practice of Law.
4. As public servant and “collaborator Officer of Justice”, an Advocate is also obliged to fight for the proper operation of Justice, to raise its status and its prestige and to provide substantial assistance to its Officers so that they can withstand their difficult and serious work.
5. The responsibility of an Advocate is particularly high when he offers his Services at Extraordinary Courts, for the defense of the liberties and the rights of the citizens require his strong presence in Trials, where the procedures and the decisions are conducted under the principle of expediency and not under the principle of legality and the “rule of law”.
An Advocate, in the event that “Extraordinary Courts” are established, has to defend with strength and judicial activism the defendant, the step of the defense -which is his embrasure, the Legal profession -which is his armor and the high value of Justice which is the ideal of humanity. He has to ignore the consequences. A legal battle taking place against a Court Commissioner and an ad hoc Court is the extension of the fight that the defendant gives for the ideals of Freedom and Democracy. An Advocate shall defend the accused person and protect him against arbitrariness and violence.
6. The President and the Boards of the Bar Associations are, according to the law, curators and guards of the Advocates’ Code and of the liberal traditions of the Body of Advocates and of the Legal profession. As they receive the reactions and the perceptions of the legal public area, they have the duty to defend the interests of the Greek People and the interests of Justice and to fight for the proper operation of Justice and the accurate conferment of the Law. It is noted that proper operation of Justice means smooth functioning of Democracy and of the “rule of law”. Without proper operation and conferment of Justice the legal profession is not able to exist and to thrive.
7. In fulfilling its mission to defend the rights and the liberties of the citizens, the Athens Bar Association had martyrs and victims. In memory of those, the Board of the Bar Association of the Capital dedicates this Code, which includes the rules of conduct which his members shall observe when offering their Services.


Article 1
The Advocate is an unsalaried public servant, and one of the three factors of the triptych of the operation and conferment of Justice (Judges, Advocates, Judicial officials). His mission and purpose is to contribute with his participation in the operation of Justice and to offer his service to the proper conferring of Law.

Article 2
A prerequisite for the proper conferment of Justice is the existence and unimpeded operation of the rule of Law. An Advocate is struggling for the existence, the preservation and the safeguarding of all and any prerequisite for the operation of the rule of Law and in particular:
a) He is a proponent of Freedom, Democracy, Peace and Social Justice.
b) He defends with courage and abnegation the Constitution and the Democratic institutions, the civil, political and social Rights of the citizens.
c) He fights against all forms of tyranny, autocratic power, infringement of constitutional freedoms and illegality.
d) He defends the independence of Justice against all forms of interference by the executive authority and by any other factor, inside and outside the Judiciary operation.
e) He is the natural defender of the oppressed and the aggrieved.

Article 3
a) The Advocate is not confined to the narrow interests of his profession.  He is interested in the general problems of his Country, he offers his knowledge and his service for the Country’s progress and he practices his Service, so as to be useful to individuals and to the Society.
b) He is interested in improving the conditions under which his Service is offered and under which, Justice is operated and conferred.  He participates in all   efforts and struggles made by the Bar Association and the Body of Advocates, in order to achieve these goals.


Article 4
The Advocate’s rights are defined in articles 38 until 61 of the Advocates’ Code (hereinafter referred as A.C.) and in other special statutes and are indicatively the following:
1) He represents his client before any Court and Authority; he defends his life, his honor, his liberty and his property and provides him with legal advice for the regulation of his legal relations (article 39 par. 1 A.C.).
2) While performing his duties, he has full freedom to act according to the law and the Courts and the various Authorities shall respect him (art. 45 par. 1).
3) He provides advice on legal issues, for which he is consulted (article 51 A.C.).
4) He is drafting the contracts provided for in article 42 of A.C.
5) He has free access to the Ministries and all Public services, by displaying his professional identity card any working day, even at hours where public entrance   is not allowed, in order to research and monitor the cases of his clients (article 45 par. 2 of A.C.).
6) He issues after inspection, certified copies of any kind of document, which any Court and Authority have to accept (article 52 A.C.).
7) He translates documents written in foreign languages. These translations have to be accepted by any Court and Authority, but they must be accompanied by the original document (article 53 A.C).
8) The Advocate has right to offer his services in the district of the Court of First Instance where he is appointed. He is also able to represent, exceptionally, his client before the Courts of other districts, under the prerequisites of art.54 and 55 of A.C. Nevertheless he has the right to defend cases of Criminal law before the criminal Courts of other districts, as long as this does not happen regularly and does not result in professional establishment in the district of another Court or in the  circumvention of the provisions of the Advocates’ Code relating to transfers   (art. 56 CL). However, in any case that he represents his client or acts before other Bar Associations, he shall respect the decisions of the local Bar Association and generally   exercise collegial behavior.
9) The Advocate is remunerated for his legal advice and his judicial or extrajudicial services on the grounds of the agreement with his client or pursuant to the provisions of the Advocates’ Code and the relevant decisions of the Bar Associations.
However, it is prohibited to receive remuneration lower than the thresholds provided in the Advocates’ Code or stipulated by decisions of the Bar Associations. Waivers on the remuneration or limitation below the above thresholds are void. An Advocate may provide free services or services charged less than the minimum remuneration to indigent litigants (article 175 A.C.).


Article 5
An Advocate has the duty to offer his Service guided by his conscience and the law, to behave with dignity and according to the traditions of the members of the Bar both in offering his Services and in his private life.

Article 6
An Advocate has the duty to undertake any case that is assigned to him, if there is a way of defense. He has the right, though, to deny the defense of the case:
a) If, according to his opinion, the case is illegal or manifestly unjust.
b) If, pursuant to the information provided by the client, it is certain that the trial will be lost.
c) If the case is against a person who is relative or a close friend of the Advocate.
d) If, in a similar case which the Advocate had undertaken before, he had argued opposing views, which were accepted with irrevocable judgments of Courts or Administrative Authorities.
e) If, in order to defend the case, he is going to contrast his published opinions, theories, interpretations or views on the same legal issue.
f) If there not enough time for proper preparation for the defense of the case.

Article 7
The Advocate while offering his Service shall:
a) Contribute to the prevalence of truth and Justice.
b)  Make efforts for amicable dispute settlements.
c) Defend the cases he undertakes with candor, consciousness and diligence.
d)  Not neglect the execution of his order and the proper and timely conduct of the case he has undertaken and to not delay trials.
e)  Maintain decency and mediocrity in his expressions, both in oral and in written judicial or extrajudicial actions, not only  towards the opponent’s Advocate, but also to the litigants, the witnesses and all those involved in the trial, arbitration, compromise settlement and any other proceeding.
f)  Not plead groundless and untenable objections, nor to invoke arguments contrary to his conscience.
g)  Not plead, in an unforeseeable manner, objections and other claims, and to not interpose them to links or additions, but to plead, on time and according to the procedure, his claims, so that he provides time to the opponent to study and question them.
h)  Not plead, in a malicious or unforeseeable manner, the objection that his Colleague lacks power of attorney. In such a case he shall promptly notify his colleague.
i)  Αvoid any chicanery and any action in bad faith, and to always guard the prestige of the legal profession.

Article 8
Being an Advocate is incompatible with being a public servant, a private official or an official of Public Entities (except as provided in articles 62 and 63 of the A.C.). In addition, being an Advocate is incompatible with practicing any other science or art or commerce, brokerage service and in general any service which is not related to the offer of his Service and is incompatible with his independency and dignity.

Article 9
It is prohibited that the Advocate advertises in the newspaper or in any other media, even letters, or by any other form of document. When visiting prisoners, the relevant correspondence may, only, mention the Advocate’s name, his address and the Court where he offers his Service, as well as his academic title (if he has one).
An Advocate is entitled to provide the above information to the public by creating a website and by registering in Advocates’ catalogue and in legal documents, as long as the information is accurate and does respect the fundamental principles of the profession.
An Advocate may place an inscription with his name and his profession only in the entrance of the building and on his office door.

Article 10
An Advocate shall not:
a) Try to acquire clients, with actions that are not compatible with the prestige of his Service.
b) Visit, at police detention centers and prisons, persons who did not invite him.
c)  Publish in newspaper or journals etc, advertisements or notify various persons with letters, that he undertakes Judicial or other cases.
d) Sign legal documents, opinions or other tenders which were not drawn up by him, nor did he assisted other Advocate in their drafting.
e) Act before Courts or Administrative Authorities without power of attorney from his client.
f) Provide advice or defend a litigant, if he has advised the other party on the same case.
g) Defend directly or indirectly both litigant parties.

Article 11
An Advocate has the obligation to put his signature next to or beneath his seal, with his office address and his telephone number, in every document he submits to Courts or Authorities, or which he notifies to others.


Article 12
An Advocate, at the beginning of every year, has the obligation to submit to the Bar the declaration as provided on article 28 of the Advocate’s Code and every other statement or information that the Board of the Bar decides, as well as to be provided with a new identity.

Article 13
An Advocate has the obligation to maintain an office at the district of the Court of First Instance where the Bar of which he is a member has his registered seat, either alone or together with other colleagues. In case he changes residence or office or telephone number, he has to immediately inform, in writing, the Association.

Article 14
An Advocate has the obligation to comply with the decisions that the Board and the General Assembly take, to act with dignity at the Assemblies and the meetings, at Courts and at each place he offers his Service.

Article 15
An Advocate has the obligation, when the Board calls him, to participate and offer his services in the Committees that study matters regarding Civil Rights and Civil Liberties, Legislation, Case Law, issues of the legal profession and to assist by all means.

Article 16
An Advocate has the obligation to respond to each call of the Board of Association, to attend the meetings within the defined periods and, if there is no such period, to do so within reasonable time and to provide  explanations and data as requested, as well as to give testimony or provide services to the Association.

Article 17
An Advocate should be interested in improving the conditions under which his legal profession is practiced and the position of his retired colleagues. He should participate in the General Assemblies, in meetings and in any demonstration in order to achieve the above mentioned goals.

Article 18
An Advocate appointed by the competent Court as a temporary or permanent receiver of bankruptcy, judicial expert, administrator of vacant succession, company or cooperation liquidator, shall notify the Association for his appointment, as well as for the completion of his tasks.

Article 19
An Advocate who agrees with his client on remuneration for his services for employment law cases, as well as for those provided in par. 7 of article 25 of the Law 723/77, shall submit a copy of that agreement to the Bar Association, within the deadline stated in the provisions of the Advocate’s Code.


Article 20
An Advocate shall behave with courtesy, collegiality and solidarity towards his colleagues.

Article 21
An Advocate before undertaking a case, for which another Advocate had offered his service, shall:
a) Endeavour to persuade the clients not to revoke the mandate from the previous Advocate, if he finds there is no reason for doing so.
b) In case he fails the above, he has to ensure that the Advocate in question has received his due fees and expenses from the client.
c) In case that the previous Advocate has not been paid, to deny to undertake the case, without his written consent.

Article 22
An Advocate shall avoid trying a case in the court when the opponent’s Advocate is in default, unless he is sure that the latter does not appear in the Court intentionally.

Article 23
If the opponent’s Advocate is sick on the day of the hearing or due to force majeure cannot appear at the Court, the Advocate has to adjourn the trial date or to consent to its adjournment.
If the opponent’s Advocate asks adjournment on the basis of a reasonable cause, the Advocate is obliged to consent as long as a) the adjournment will not prejudice his client’s interests; b) his opponent has not sought systematically any previous adjournment. In any case, the relevant trial fee has to be prepaid to the Secretary of the Court by the one who asks for the adjournment.

Article 24
An Advocate, who is summoned or is attending an autopsy or a judicial expertise, has to promptly notify the opponent’s Advocate.

Article 25
Under the condition of reciprocity an Advocate has the obligation to announce his answers in time to the opponent’s Advocates, as well as every document he is going to use in the court hearing. An Advocate, who at the time the decision was rendered, took the “relevant” documents from the competent Secretary, is obliged to issue and provide copies of these documents to his colleague, and to pay the relevant expenses.
When an Advocate submits to the Courts an extract from a document he has, he also has to provide the opponent’s Advocate with a copy of the entire document.
When an Advocate at the court hearing submits attached motions to his answers, he has no right to withdraw any of them, if the opposing party has referred to their content.

Article 26
In criminal law cases it is not obligatory that the defendant’s Advocate discloses the relevant documents to the plaintiff’s Advocate and vice versa.

Article 27
An Advocate shall not:
Use insulting or derogating expressions for the opponent’s Advocate, or to show arrogance towards him.
Speak derogatory of a colleague who handled a case prior to him, or for a colleague with whom he cooperates or cooperated in the past on a case.


Article 28
The Advocates have a duty to respect the Judges. The Judges and the Judicial Officers have the same duty towards the Advocates. Any breach of this duty is inspected by the Bar Association as well.  If the breach is made by an Advocate, the Association takes disciplinary action. If the breach is made by a Judge, a Prosecutor or a Judicial Officer, the Association asks the Head of the service to sanction them.  In case that the Head in question denies or fails to impose sanctions, the Association criticizes in public the offence and the failure to pose sanctions.

Article 29
The Advocates, in all kinds of Trials offer their Service with absolute freedom of opinion, within the framework of the procedural rules. They request permission to speak from the President of the Court and if he unreasonably refuses the permission, they request it from the entire Court. If they don’t receive permission, they don’t have the right to ask questions, to submit requests or to interrupt the President or the Judges or the Prosecutor or the other party. In case that the rights of the Advocate in criminal trials or the Attorney in civil trials are limited in any way, he shall uphold the prestige of the profession, to claim his lawful rights and to cite the case to the Bar Association.

Article 30
The Advocates have to address to the Court and the Authorities with courtesy, during the hearings as well as in the answers or the notes and any other documents they submit.
They although have the tight and the obligation to defend strongly and with consistency their opinions, to contradict the opposing ones of the Prosecutor, the Judges and the representatives of the Authority and to contend to prove their client’s innocence or correctness and in general to fight by all legal means to prove the truth and to properly interpret and apply the law.

Article 31
The Advocates behave themselves before the Judges, Prosecutors, Judicial officials and representatives of the Authorities with dignity. It is prohibited not to behave properly or to flatter with a view to acquaint sympathy or favorable decision or action.

Article 32
a. Advocates shall not testify in Courts on cases and incidents that were brought into their attention due to the fact that they offered their services either in Courts, either in extrajudicial acts, negotiations, or efforts for amicable resolution of disputes.
b. In exceptional circumstances they can be examined as witnesses regarding a case they were involved in, or are aware due to their capacity as advocates, as long as there are important reasons. The Advocate in question explains those reasons by filing a petition to the Association (Board of Directors).  The Board assesses the reasons and grants, at its discretion, the relevant permission. In very urgent cases the permission is granted by the President of the Board alone.
c. Even if they are granted the permission from the Board or the President, it is prohibited that they testify facts trusted to them by their client and to breach their duty of confidentiality.
d. It is strongly prohibited to be examined as witnesses against their clients or their former clients, or their successors, even if their mandate is revoked or completed.
e. An Advocate shall not have dual capacity in the same trial, breing at the same time an Advocate and a witness. This prohibition does not apply to an advocate who is also plaintiff himself.
f. When an Advocate is summoned by a Court or Authority to be examined as a witness and to testify facts of which he became aware due to his capacity as an advocate, he has the right to refuse to testify because it is opposed to his professional secrecy. If the testimony does not infringe the secrecy, he has the right to judge at his discretion if and to which extent he shall be examined on these incidents, provided that the disclosure would not harm his client and that he will be granted permission from the Board or the President.
g. When an Advocate is bound by the professional secrecy, he has to notify the Court or the Authority, which summoned him, and he is not required to base his refusal to testify on specific reasoning.
h. For other events, of which he became aware due to other circumstances apart from offering his Service, he has no right to refuse his testimony, nor needs permission from the Board or the President.


Article 33
An Advocate shall behave perfectly towards his associates. He shall not derogate their work and not comment negatively on their ability or their assistance to the client or to any other person. He has to comply with the payment agreements towards his associates and to provide any assistance to them in order to ensure that the client pays their fees.

Article 34
In case that the Advocate employs another Advocate regularly or exceptionally, either to assist in all cases of his office either for the completion of certain cases, he is obliged:
a. To behave towards him as a gentleman, with equality and not as a boss to a subordinate.
b. To cooperate with him with collegiality, kindness and understanding and not to offend his pride, his personal and professional dignity and not employ him in non- advocate services.
c. To pay the agreed fee in time.
d. To highlight the work of his colleague to the client, to the Courts and to third parties.


Article 35
An Advocate who has a trainee in his Office is obliged to:
a. To declare that with a written statement.
b. To guide the Trainee in practicing the Advocacy.
c. To assign him the study and dealing with simple cases at first and later with more important ones, to provide guidance for dealing them, to discuss with him the scientific and practical issues and in general to provide him any assistance and support.
d. To provide him the power of attorney when it is needed, and to appear before the Courts with him (in cases undertaken by the Trainee).
e. To provide him with any certification needed for his traineeship or his participation in exams.
f. To behave towards the Trainee with courtesy and understanding and to not offend, in any way, his personality.
g. To employ him in advocates’ duties and not in services unrelated to the legal profession.


Article 36
When an Advocate undertakes a case, he has a duty:
1) To represent his client before any Court to which he is appointed and before any Authority and to take any necessary acts. If the case is to be tried by a Court, where he is not entitled to represent, he has to announce this to his client and to refuse the mandate.
2) To not neglect to execute the mandate and to not delay it for any reason, but to execute  at its discretion it conscientiously and diligently.
3) To strictly observe professional secrecy:
Α) Regarding any information that his client entrusted to him even orally, even if disclosure will not result in damage to his client, or if those information came into publicity from another source, or even if his client has exempt him from the obligation of professional secrecy.
Β) Regarding any information he learned from studying other documents that his client entrusted him. He is not allowed to make those documents public, nor to give copies to the litigants or to third parties, nor to announce to them their content, except as mentioned in the previous articles.
C) Regarding any information derived from the examination of his client’s witnesses.
D) Regarding any information other Advocates provided him, concerning his client’s case.
E) He has to observe professional secrecy not only during, but also after the completion of the case or the revocation of the mandate from its client, even after his client’s death and to impose such a duty to his associates and his officers.
F) When an Advocate undertakes a case against an old client, whom another Advocate defends, he has no right to reveal to his client professional secrets with which his old client has trusted him, or to use this information against them, with any way, in trial.
4) An Advocate who has been assigned with a case against another Advocate, has to invite him for amicable settlement for the dispute, before taking any judicial act. It is prohibited that an Advocate submits a complaint against another Advocate without prior permission granted by the President of the Bar Association.

Article 37
Α) An Advocate may strive for the better and faster completion of the case he undertakes, minimizing at the least possible the court representations and the corresponding cost of his clients.
Β) He defends the case at his discretion, without exceeding the limits of his mandate.
C) He has to inform his client for the progress of the case and how he defends it. If his client disagrees, the Advocate has the right to refuse to defend the case, provided that he does so in time to assign the case in another Advocate.
D) The agreement on remuneration and expenses has to be done in a way that the client understands thoroughly and has no grounds for controversy, remonstrance, complaints and quarrels. The remuneration may be agreed as a lump sum or at a rate of the amount in dispute or by court representation. The remuneration shall not be less than the thresholds provided in the Advocates’ Code. In case of subcontracting a trial, the Advocate is not entitled to remuneration. The parties may agree that the expenses are borne the Advocate, the client, or both.
Ε) An Advocate has the right to ask for advance payment for his expenses and his remuneration or for part of his expenses and his remuneration. If his client refuses to provide the agreed advance payment, the Advocate has the right to refuse to defend the case, provided that he does so in time and that he returns all the documents to his client, so that the client is able to assign the case to another Advocate.
F) When an Advocate resigns from the defense of the case on reasonable grounds, he has the right to ask from his client to pay his remuneration and expenses regarding his actions until the day of the resignation. If his client does not pay the above sums, as well as if he does not pay the agreed remuneration and expenses, the Advocate has the right of retention of the documents he has in his possession until the client pays the due remuneration and fees.
G) It is prohibited that the Advocate who resigns from the defense of a case undertakes the defense of his former client’s opponent in the same case. However, it is allowed that he undertakes the defense of another case which his former client’s opponent assigns to him, if it is not related with the case in question.
I) It is prohibited that an Advocate agrees with third parties or harms the interests of his client or takes actions that benefit his opponent or harm his client, or provides detrimental advise to his client, or assists directly or indirectly both litigants in the same case.
J)    The Advocate that undertook the defense of a case has the duty to provide his client with a receipt for the documents entrusted to him (if requested) and to keep them for at least five years after the completion of the case
K) An Advocate has to return in due time the money he collects on behalf of his client, as well as to report on the administration of money or other property he has been assigned to.


Article 38
a) An Advocate has the duty to avoid any communication with the other party and any discussion on the case, without the consent of his client. If the opponent has given a mandate on the case to an Advocate, in every relevant discussion his Advocate has to be called.
b) It is forbidden that an Advocate, who has undertaken the defense of a case, makes calls or sends letters with blackmailing or threatening content to his opponent. He is only allowed to notify the opponent that he has undertaken the case for his client and to invite him to settle, if he wants, the case out of the court.
c) An Advocate who provides, on permanent basis remuneration, his legal services to a legal person, governed by public or private law, shall not undertake directly or indirectly cases of third parties against its members or cases of the members against the legal person.
d) An Advocate shall not ask or accept any remuneration by his client’s opponent, or undertake a case of his, before he definitely completes the trial he conducts against him.
e) An Advocate has to respect his opponent and behave towards him with politeness. An Advocate shall avoid offensive and in general acute expressions and any derogatory for the opponent action or wording not necessary for defending his client’s rights.
g) An Advocate shall not cause excessive expenses for the opponent by repeated lawsuits, in case that instead of filing many it is enough to file one, or by taking other unnecessary actions or by issuing excessive checks or swelling legal costs.
h) An Advocate does not exceed the limits imposed by humanitarian principles, when he takes action against his client’s opponent and particularly when he enforces Court rulings.  He shall not be present at the time of the enforcement, unless his presence is necessary, but in such a case he has to obtain permission by the Bar or the President of the Bar Association.


Article 39
The Advocate has a duty, not only when practicing his profession, but also in his private life, to behave with dignity, in order not to cause comments and defamation against the Bar. He has the duty to have consistency in any of his transactions and his statements to his counterparties or other persons have to be serious and true. He shall not abuse ignorance, inexperience, acquaintance, kinship, friendship or trust of his client, his opponent or third party, nor his profession. In residences, workplaces, unions and various Organizations in which he is a member, in busy areas, in public transportations, at public gatherings, he has to display exemplary behavior.


Article 40
The breach of the obligations provided in the Advocates’ Code or other laws and in the Code of Conduct is a disciplinary offense and is sanctioned under the provisions of articles 66 until 79 of the Advocates’ Code.

Article 41
The Code of Conduct has been adopted by the Board of the Athens Bar Association, at the meeting of the 4th.1.1980 and it is in effect since the date of its publication in the journal “Legal Forum” or in the journal “Code of the Legal Forum”.


This version includes the amendment of the 14th.5.2009.

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